Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Advantages and Disadvantages of Networks Essays

Favorable circumstances and Disadvantages of Networks Essays Favorable circumstances and Disadvantages of Networks Paper Favorable circumstances and Disadvantages of Networks Paper Favorable circumstances and drawbacks of systems I’ll start by saying that setting up a system is a genuine activity and ought to be done distinctly by an individual that is now acquainted with the way toward systems administration. The assortment of alternatives for setting up a home system can impact on a choice with respect to the hardware should have been buy. Before choosing what equipment to get you should initially discover which kind of system innovation to use (by sort of system innovation I mean the manner in which PCs interface with the system and speak with one another). I for one have a home Local Area Network (LAN) associated through a link modem switch to my D-LINK DSL modem. Other than LAN I have two PCs (journal and PC) and they are both associated with a printer and scanner, so I can print or sweep anything in a second just with a single tick. As I would like to think the best thing about having a system is to have the option to play multiplayer games with my significant other or the way that I don’t need a different Internet Connection for each PC (despite the fact that there is a drawback to this, since when I’m downloading something from web, sites take too long to even consider opening if my better half is chipping away at the other PC). I can share the one I have on every one of them. There are a few burdens too. In some cases it happens that the system basically gets lost and it takes hours to make sense of what the issue is. However, when I summarize everything, I truly can't see how I lived without arrange previously, on the grounds that now I am ready to do nearly everything without leaving my home. What is your sentiment regarding this matter? You can expound on a portion of your encounters that can be valuable for demonstrating the preferences and drawbacks of systems or about what is as of now known on this theme. In this exposition we will discuss systems and the different manners by which they can be utilized. While discussing systems we will likewise examine different points of interest and inconveniences identified with them. There are a few different ways you can interface your PCs: links through the house or office, remote †by radio waves or by phone lines. Every one of these strategies requires arrangement of the associated PCs with the goal that they can share records, printers and web association. Setting up a PC to work in a system isn't troublesome. Every technique has its focal points and burdens and we focus on them. Favorable position of remote system is that you have the opportunity to utilize the web from any room in your home or office and more individuals can utilize the web simultaneously. The impediments are that occasionally a switch can’t spread the region required and it can get hard to arrive at a sign. Yet, the greatest impediment of remote Internet is that your system will be accessible to each and every individual who is utilizing a remote switch and can utilize your system to get to the web whenever. This is the reason this sort of system should be ensured with a security secret key so as to forestall it. Favorable circumstances of PC systems are various, while burdens are practically negligible if the systems administration is done appropriately. With a little interest in PC arrange, an individual or association can get the a large portion of PCs and extras they effectively own or plan to buy. Division of all assets in a system is conceivable (web association, printers, scanners, fax modems, plotters, and so on ). This implies from every one of the PCs in the system, you can print anything on a printer that is associated with the system through one of the PCs situated in another room or in another table. With execution of system you don't have to get web association for every PC independently. It is sufficient that one has it so as to impart it to other people. Any client on system will approach the Internet. This implies this individual can peruse and send letters and surf Internet (surfing is only an alternative; the framework can be set for each client independently, with the goal that clients don't have direct access to the Internet). At the point when you have numerous PCs at home or at work, and you need to share among them Internet association, documents or messing around, the best thing is to interface them by organize. On the off chance that a system record server builds up a deficiency then again, at that point clients will most likely be unable to run application programs or an issue on the system can make clients free information (if the documents aren’t spared). Here and there it can happen that if the system quits working, it may not be conceivable to get to different assets. Clients become subordinate upon arrange and the abilities of the frameworks administrator and it is hard to make the framework secure from programmers. Systems that have developed with little idea can be wasteful in the long haul; as traffic increments on a system, the exhibition corrupts except if it is planned appropriately; assets might be found excessively far away from certain clients; the bigger the system turns into, the more troublesome it is to oversee. Yet at the same time setting up an office organize it is really worth some time in light of the fact that the advantages from the way that it can set aside you cash to the way that you can along these lines improve business just as the nature of administrations a firm brings to the table. And the entirety of the security issues and expenses and staff abilities, an individual can, with mix of appropriate preparing and by setting up a legitimate security framework, lessen the entirety of this issues to least and you unquestionably have more favorable circumstances at that point disservices. You can utilize your system to share records, a printer or another fringe gadget and Internet association. In peer-to-peernetwork you can trade records or informations straightforwardly client to client conceivable. All customers give assets, transfer speed, extra room, and registering capacity to the framework. This builds the absolute limit of the framework and empowers quicker documents partaking in shared system. Detriment of P2P arrange is that with ityou can without much of a stretch come down with infections, spyware or some other sort of malware andmost documents shared along these lines are in penetrate of duplicate right. It additionally gobbles up a great deal of data transmission and influences whatever else you plan on doing on web. The thing I value the most with regards to arrange is on the off chance that you need to take a shot at another PC that is offering a system to your PC and you have to get to certain information on your PC, you can do it effectively, given that your PC is turned on. I might want to examine increasingly about office organizes as well. The favorable circumstances and weaknesses of utilizing system in office can effect on our choice whether it is a positive or negative for our business. In the event that you, for instance have different PCs in an office and you dont have a system, it can wind up being excessively costly. With usage of system you could just system printer and offer it. Reaction times is the most significant thing is the equipment you are running, so you must make certain to run a server on a decent equipment, so you can guarantee improvement in quality and accelerate the measure of every day work. Single purposes of disappointment could be decreased with an appropriately actualized reinforcement framework for instance. Along these lines the issue with lost information when server accidents will be limited or totally disposed of. In today’s society, it is for all intents and purposes unthinkable not to utilize a system. The incredible favorable circumstances, for example, shared printers or probability of PCs being overseen midway with a similar programming introduced on every one (albeit looking from Bill Gates forthcoming this would most likely be a disadvantage)or the way that correspondence over the system is modest and quick are making a great deal of employments simpler these days. There are tragically a couple of inconveniences as well. On the off chance that the individual that is actualizing the system isn't talented, similarity issues with various kinds of programming running on the system could be a danger. Now and again the upkeep can be costly, or as you’ve referenced a shortcoming with the server can keep the entire system from working. A great deal of work must be placed into safety efforts so we can forestall access to our system, particularly from saltines and infections. I want to hear soon from our two associates and I’m anticipating hear their perspective.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Diabetes and Complimentary Alternative Medicine Therapies

Diabetes is one of the general wellbeing concerns which have influenced numerous individuals everywhere throughout the world, in spite of the ongoing advances in the field of medication, care and the executives. It has been a weight to many individuals, in addition to the fact that it is harming to the individuals experiencing it harming as far as cash. Having diabetes could prompt money related issues, as it should be upheld and kept up by meds and treatments.Because of this, individuals thought of ways on how they’d have the option to manage diabetes different ways the ordinary specialist medicine approach. What they found is the Complimentary and Alternative Medicine treatments (CAM) for treating Diabetes. They discovered that CAM treatments are as similarly accommodating in battling diabetes when contrasted with drugs and other clinical medicines. In different explores, it was discovered that there is an assortment of CAM treatments accessible in the present.These incorpor ate needle therapy, chiropractic, homeopathy, home grown cures, high-portion megavitamins, lone supplication or profound practices, intercessory petition or otherworldly recuperating by others, business diet programs, self improvement gatherings, unwinding/reflection, way of life consumes less calories, guided symbolism, rub, vitality mending, people cures, biofeedback, naturopathy, yoga, entrancing, osteopathy, and fragrance based treatment (Garrow and Egede, 2006; Yeh, Eisenberg, Davis, and Phillips, 2002).These treatments are generally utilized for diabetes, however for different types of physical issues also, including coronary illness, kidney sickness, malignancy, stomach related conditions, hypersensitivities, sorrow, and some more. As indicated by Yeh, et al, 57% of their respondents detailed CAM use for as long as year, and 35% utilized CAM explicitly for diabetes (Yeh et al. , 2002). A few looks into were directed to test the productivity of these complimentary elective med ication therapies.They were tried on individuals experiencing various kinds of diabetes, and whether they have any impact in the individual taking the CAM treatment. These CAM treatments were then contrasted with the conventional method of managing diabetes, which is through drugs. These analysts wished to know whether these CAM treatments are really attempting to help individuals with Diabetes issues as opposed to giving them bogus expectations that they will be restored. One of the striking qualities of these CAM treatments is that it doesn't scam you financially.It doesn’t fundamentally must be something ingested, it could be a psychological molding process, an activity wellness routine, or a blend of outside strategies for mending others. Conventional strategies were more on drinking pills, counseling a specialist and having medicines. With CAM treatments, you can do anything you need and still be restoring yourself. Likewise, there are a few CAM treatments one could look over and it doesn’t must be something very similar again and again again.However, the aftereffects of these CAM treatments are not unreasonably quick, when contrasted with taking drugs, wherein you comprehend what time its impact will last or wear off. Yet at the same time, it isn't fitting to supplant the ordinary method of treating diabetes with problematic CAM treatments (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2005). However much as could reasonably be expected, ensure that a CAM treatment is demonstrated to be compelling before giving it a shot. In view of the explores, the individuals who utilized CAM for diabetes were totally happy with it and seen the treatments as by and large helpful.Also, these CAM treatments are not only for dealing with diabetes, it is utilized in treating different conditions. It is likewise reliant on which gathering of individuals utilizes what sorts of CAM. There were the individuals who utilizes supplication, nutrients, work out, contemplation, herbs, music treatment and some more (Cuellar, Aycock, Cahill, and Ford, 2003). It doesn't confine an individual to one sort of treatment alone, however wide scope of treatment for the individuals who are experiencing diabetes. One ramifications of this is the acknowledgment that it can provide for human services suppliers, since numerous individuals are happy with CAM therapies.On an examination directed by Cuellar, et al, it is suggested that medicinal services suppliers must know that individuals utilizing CAM are happy with their utilization (Cuellar et al. , 2003). Maybe these medicinal services suppliers would consider offering them to more patients who needs it, and acquainting it with the individuals who doesn’t know anything about it yet. In the appearance of innovation, there are as yet those individuals who lean toward the old ways than the new ways. This doesn't just incorporate our inclinations, yet additionally how we treat and fathom ou r problems.One model is the acclaimed diabetes, known to have burdened serous issues to a large number of individuals around the world. We ought not constrain ourselves to meds and different kinds of treatment. We can generally return to the manner in which nature expected us to be, that’s why we could comprehend this issue by returning to what are straightforwardly given by our condition. Complimentary Alternative Medicine Therapies isn't about how strange you a fix could be; rather it ought to be about how valuable it would be to those requiring it.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Logotherapy: Meaning of Life and Frankl Essay

Viktor Frankl was an Austrian man conceived in 1905. He was the dad of Logotherapy which is alluded to as the Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy. Frankl followed in the strides of different popular therapists including Sigmund Freud. He spearheaded the idea that an individual can push ahead in one’s life after an awful or unpleasant experience by finding new importance throughout everyday life. In spite of the fact that a large number of his thoughts were gotten from Freud’s and Adlers past considerations, he additionally adopted a new strategy to helping individuals. In this way the start of Logotherapy. He was first distributed in the International Journal of Psychoanalysis when he was in secondary school. He at that point went to auxiliary school and started dealing with his degree in psychiatry and Neurology in clinical school. Frankl went to a similar school in Viennese as Sigmund Freud. From the outset Frankl was amazingly intrigued by Freudian analysis yet before long began to differ with his treatment techniques. Frankl imagined that Freuds sees were to limit and didn't concur with Freud’s idea’s that sexual driving forces could clarify most of human conduct (Hoffman, 1995). Subsequent to contemplating Freudian analysis, he got intrigued and concentrated on ecological and cultural factor to clarify human conduct, which was Alfred Adler’s brain science see (Frankl, Viktor Frankl memories: A self-portrayal , 1997). While considering the lessons of Freud and Adler he started framing his own totally different treatment known was logotherapy, which is characterized as mending through importance. After graduation he was advanced in the emergency clinic in Vienna to the head of self destruction and discouragement anticipation, where he treated more than 3,000 ladies. During this time, he shaped his own private practice where he started to use logotherapy (Frankl, Viktor Frankl memories: A life account, 1997). He at that point could ask his customers inquiries about how they were feeling and what was keeping them invigorated and pushing ahead in such a low time in their lives. He at that point saw as a result of the inquiry that he was posing to individuals appear to be experiencing absence of significance in their lives than the loss of business (Hoffman, 1995). In 1937 Frankl began to compose articles about what he called logotherapy. At that point in 1938, Frankl needed to surrender his private practice and had to move. He was moved to the Rothschild medical clinic where he could just treat Jewish patients; because of the Nazi control (Hoffman, 1995). The Nazi killing project constrained eradication on numerous customers who were experiencing cerebrum wounds and mental sicknesses, and Frankl had to watch these executions. To attempt to spare the intellectually sick staff he started to distort archives to help maintain a strategic distance from willful extermination. He would change their determination so they would not be moved for the willful extermination program and could remain with their families. While at the clinic he would get around twelve of people who endeavored to end it all. Where he attempted to assist them with discovering importance and life and to proceed with the battle. He was then hitched in 1941 to Tilly Grosser, and after a year Frankl’s and his family were captured and brought to inhumane imprisonments. While in the inhumane imprisonments Frankl realized that he was unable to change his circumstance yet could help everyone around him and himself by guiding in his sleeping quarters. During his detainment Frankl burrowed trench, chipped in at the typhus ward, and furthermore set up a self destruction anticipation program (Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning, 1959). After the long hard days of the detainees being beaten, starved, Frankl would enable the detainees to comprehend that their encounters were helping them create qualities for the future (Ivey, Ivey, and Zalaquett, 2010). When Frankl was in Auschwitz he previously composed â€Å"The Doctor and the Soul† and it was then found and afterward the book was demolished. In April of 1945 Frankl’s camp was freed. Frankl and his sister were the main two who make due during their stay all through the different death camps. His dad kicked the bucket from starvation and his mom and spouse were killed by the gas chambers. He at that point recreated his book â€Å"The Doctor and the Soul† and it was then distributed, and nine days tailing he distributed a second book which sold more than 11 million duplicates before he kicked the bucket and got known as â€Å"Man’s Search for Meaning†. The first title of that book was â€Å"Saying yes to life disregarding everything†. This book depicts his encounters all through his stay in inhumane imprisonments and furthermore his hypothesis of logotherapy (Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning, 1959). During this time Frankl met his subsequent spouse named Elenore Schwindt and had an infant young lady not long after they were marry. Frankl proceeded to writer more than 38 books and to talk the world over on his encounters and logotherapy. Frankl carried on with a long life and passed on September 2, 1997 when he was 92 years of age. Logos is a Greek word what represents meaning. Along these lines logotherapy centers around a person’s scan for significance, the inquiry identifies with discovering reason in one’s life or assignments (Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning, 1959). Frankl found that people are increasingly arranged towards importance and look for significance in the entirety of their conditions (Kimble and Ellor, 2009). The possibility of logotherapy started in 1921 when Frankl was still in secondary school (Guttmann, 1996). At that point while in the inhumane imprisonments, the individuals who had a superior possibility of endurance were those that had any expectation of being brought together with friends and family, ones with confidence, or ones that felt as though they had a reason in life that they needed to finish. This is the means by which logotherapy began by 1960 logotherapy increased overall acknowledgment. Logotherapist don't mention to their patients what to see yet essentially rectifies their capacity to see (Kimble and Ellor, 2009). Logotherapist additionally help look for positive implying that underlines conduct, thought and activity. All through treatment certain methods are utilized. Incomprehensible goal is a procedure used to assist patients with tension, fears and over the top impulses (Guttmann, 1996). It is a piece of treatment when you stand up to your feelings of dread, fundamentally you instruct yourself to do something contrary to what you genuinely need, similar to do whatever it takes not to nod off when you are really attempting to rest. A particular system that logotherapist use is dereflection; it is utilized when customers center around negatives (Ivey, Ivey, and Zalaquett, 2010). Dereflection is a method that you move consideration from oneself and onto others, issues regularly vanish. Frankl noticed that the significance of life is not the same as individual to individual and from circumstance to circumstance. In this way he expresses that there is anything but a general significance in life for all mankind (Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning, 1959). There were three diverse essential rules that are created to make up logotherapy, and help find meaning. The primary essential guideline of logotherapy is life has importance under all conditions. The subsequent guideline is that all individuals have a will to accomplish significance in their life. At long last the third guideline is individuals have opportunity under all conditions to enact the will to significance and to discover meaning (Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning, 1959). All through a customers treatment the objectives concerning the result of their treatment comprise of the customer having the option to know about his/her decisions. The objectives manage the customers to comprehend current experience, and past encounters and the significance with the end goal of life. They likewise perceive factors that square opportunity and can acknowledge opportunity and duty. The shocking set of three is made out of three unique components blame, passing, and unavoidable torment. Any piece of the terrible ternion can happen to anybody and it will consistently be a piece of humanity. Every individual responds contrastingly to every circumstance. At the point when we are confronted with one of these components it is then when we understand we have to improve our lives and start to act. Circumstances can't be changed yet your mentality on the circumstance can be (Guttmann, 1996). In any case, when life has no significance it gets vacant, is the thing that Frankl calls existential vacuum. The existential vacuum makes an opening, which should be filled. Individuals attempt to fill their gap with shallow things or anything that gives some fulfillment, for example, drugs, eating to an abundance or not in the least, outrage, fixation, or dread. Practices, for example, discouragement, hostility and enslavement were brought about by the loss of significance. There are additionally two degrees of importance. Extreme importance is an implying that we can never reach. It tends to be a divine being or science as the quest for truth, nature, and development for the individuals who don't have confidence in god or an extreme being (Guttmann, 1996). The other degree of importance is significance at the time, which is the understanding significance of every second by satisfying the requests that life puts on us. Frankl calls attention to that there are three different ways to discover significance throughout everyday life and is regularly alluded to as the importance triangle. The principal approach to discover significance is through innovative works. It is the thing that and how we provide for the world through self-articulation. The second is by encountering; by what we take or get from the world through nature, culture, connections, and communications with others and with our condition. The third method to discover significance is with a difference in disposition. Regardless of whether we can’t change the circumstance or the conditions, we can in any case pick our demeanor towards the condition. These are the manners in which that a customer can help discover importance in their life. These attitudinal qualities as Frankl calls them, is when being stood up to with a miserable circumstance an individual has an approach to discover meaning (Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning, 1959). For the duration of Frankl’s life he was enlivened to help individuals. While all through his encounters he had the option to create logotherapy which has become a broadly utilized treatment procedure and methods. His background and preliminaries helped him to frame a treatment

Sunday, May 31, 2020

The Twilight World of Babylon Revisited - Literature Essay Samples

At first glance, â€Å"Babylon Revisited† seems to carry the same them as The Great Gatsby of the dangers of idealizing the past to the point of destroying the present. However, â€Å"Babylon Revisited† adds an extra layer of meaning by firmly placing the ambiguity between the hopes for the future and the sins of the past squarely in the realm of alcoholism. Through the characters, Fitzgerald depicts a drinking culture where the parties have lost their joy and the hangovers have become the de facto lifestyle. The characters of â€Å"Babylon Revisited† live in a twilight world of desperation and regret, too old to enjoy the drinking but incapable of truly changing their ways. Charlie is the character that most resembles F. Scott Fitzgerald’s biography, a former expatriate who spent the 1920s in Paris, drinking and writing and dealing with an unhinged wife. There is an irony to the characterization since Charlie is a shell of a human being holding onto the past, whereas Fitzgerald’s writing had become much deeper and more mature in his post-Paris years. Charlie’s appearance is described as â€Å"He was thirty-five, and good to look at. The Irish mobility of his face was sobered by a deep wrinkle between his eyes. As he rang his brother-in-laws bell in the Rue Palatine, the wrinkle deepened till it pulled down his brows; he felt a cramping sensation in his belly† (676). This physical description is from Charlie’s perspective where he admits that he’s old (wrinkles) but still maintains his illusion of youthful exuberance (Irish mobility). Even though Charlie’s stated intention is to take custody of his daughte r, the story makes it obvious that he would prefer to relive the past when alcohol was fun and the party continued. Charlie is introduced asking about old friends only to discover that most of them are gone. Even before he visits his brother-in-law, he is making plans to see old drinking companions. Fitzgerald encapsulates Charlie’s sense of disorientation while talking about the Ritz bar. â€Å"It was not an American bar any morehe felt polite in it, and not as if he owned it. It had gone back into France.† (675) In that one sentence, Fitzgerald communicates Charlie’s history, his disorientation and his current life. Charlie feeling â€Å"polite† in a bar engenders a question of what he was like in the 1920s before the 1929 Crash. There are also several questions from that line. Does Charlie feeling polite mean that there’s a self-knowledge about his past where he was never polite? Or did the fact that he was an American in Paris living an expatri ate life make him feel impolite when he was among other Americans? Charlie seems to have once carried the self-image of a loud and boisterous drunk and once that ends, he seems confused by the fact that he didn’t die young and must now carry on his drinking in polite repose. Charlie’s relationship to his past shifts between nostalgic and regretful, but it is more often nostalgic. His time at the Ritz bar is spent talking to Alix about the old crowd, but when he says that his main intention is his daughter, Alix is surprised that he has a daughter. Note that Alix is a character who has known Charlie for years. After a disastrous visit with his in-laws and his daughter, he returns to the bars. In these scenes, he is a petulant child who does not get his own way, so he moves back into the familiar territory of dissipation, even though he admits repeatedly that there is no joy left in the activity. â€Å"All the catering to vice and waste was on an utterly childish scale, and he suddenly realized the meaning of the word ‘dissipate’to dissipate into thin air; to make nothing out of something. In the little hours of the night every move from place to place was an enormous human jump, an increase of paying for the privilege of slower and slower motion.† (678) As much as Charlie wants to be the respectable and mature father, he is a child upset that his playtime is over. Even when he is trying to convince his in-laws to allow him to take his daughter, he blatantly lies about his drinking. â€Å"I havent had more than a drink a day for over a year, and I take that drink deliberately, so that the idea of alcohol wont get too big in my imagination.† (681) However, this deception is not merely for his in-laws; Charlie is just as much trying to convince himself that he’s sober. When Duncan and Lorraine meet him while he’s with his daughter, his assessment of the situation is blatantly false, but he’s only lying to himself: â€Å"They liked him because he was functioning, because he was serious; they wanted to see him, because he was stronger than they were now, because they wanted to draw a certain sustenance from his strength.† (680) One of the most frustrating aspects of Charlie is his lack of insight. In the language of Alcoholic Anonymous and 12 Step Programs, Charlie is a man who is not willing to take that first step to admitting that he has a problem. Even though Charlie’s in-laws don’t let him have his daughter because they don’t trust him, he filters everything through his sense of entitlement. â€Å"They couldn’t make him pay forever,† (689) is what Charlie is feeling in place of naked honesty. He cannot admit that he’s a hazard to himself and his daughter. Instead, he is being made to pay for past mistakes by two unfeeling in-laws. If Charlie is based on Fitzgerald, then Helen is based on Zelda, Fitzgerald’s mentally unstable wife who constantly fought with him and jealously denigrated his work. Hemingway famously blamed her for the limitations of Fitzgerald’s work. Charlie echoes this blame when he states that â€Å"I never did drink heavily until I gave up business and came over here with nothing to do. Then Helen and I began to run around† (681). His in-laws stop him from speaking against Helen, but as a dead character she has become part of his narrative. Since she is not around to defend herself, Charlie can blame all of his bad habits on her. She becomes another tool for his self-deception. Not only is he telling himself that he no longer drinks heavily, but he can put all the drinking solely on the shoulders of Helen. As the story says â€Å"The image of Helen haunted him. Helen whom he had loved so until they had senselessly begun to abuse each others love, tear it into shreds.â₠¬  (683) In other words, Charlie maintains the memory that it’s nobody’s fault. The Couples There are two couples that haunt Charlie – Marion Lincoln as the responsible couple and Lorraine Duncan as the old drinking couple. These couples seem diametric opposites at first and yet, they are all refusing to see any growth on the part of Charlie. Lorraine sums up the eternal childishness of the drinking couple when she writes to Charlie: â€Å"We did have such good times that crazy spring, like the night you and I stole the butchers tricycle, and the time we tried to call on the president and you had the old derby rim and the wire cane. Everybody seems so old lately, but I dont feel old a bit.† (684) Even though Marion disapproves of Charlie, her assessment of him as a good time drunk without responsibility is very similar. â€Å"When you were throwing away money we were living along watching every ten francs. . . . I suppose youll start doing it again† (682). When these couples meet in the climactic scene, Charlie is put in the position of trying to fight the perceptions of four people who know him solely as an irresponsible drunk. Sadly, Charlie cannot dispute their image of him with anything but self-deception and acquiescence. Works Cited Fitzgerald, F. Scott. â€Å"Babylon Revisited.† In Baym, Nina, gen. ed. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Vol D. 8th ed. New York: WW Norton, 2012. 675-689.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Poverty Is The Parent Of Crime And Revolution - 1635 Words

Poverty is seen in the eyes of a child whose meals are school provided and the sun’s distance is synonymous with the reality of seeing a day where their parents can provide a home cooked meal every night. Poverty is felt on the cement of a corner where a window rolls down and two hands touch the surface of a crumbly dollar bill, one giving and one receiving. Greek Philosopher and scientist Aristotle once said, â€Å"Poverty is the parent of crime and revolution.† Poverty will either make a person take what they don’t have from someone who might have a little more than they do or it will make a person rebel against the current of the system, the present state of their life, and do something to remove themselves out of financial scarcity. Poverty†¦show more content†¦Virtually, the same thing can be said about poverty. The cycle of poverty within impoverished families is a real thing, and people are prisoners within this cycle for usually two or three gene rations (Sharkey, 2013). This cycle places someone at a high risk of experiencing an entire life in poverty. Similar to how doctors and the government educate society on how to take precautions so that they can avoid certain illnesses through television advertisements and pamphlets. Resources such as financial literacy classes, better funded school systems, more involvement of the church, and more jobs within a close proximity to the inner cities can end poverty in America. All of these tools and resources can be used to end poverty, such as getting an education, which is ever crucial in the ending of poverty because jobs in today’s climate require skills that require a college education and as a result of this, students who drop out of high school place themselves at risk of living in poverty (Nelson, 2016). Education in America has been used by its citizens to curtail their chances of living a life of poverty. In the beginning of the 2014 fall semester, there was a 31% rise in undergraduate enrollment in college institutions from approximately 13 million students in 2000 to right above 17 million in 2014(National Center for Education Statistics). ThisShow MoreRelatedThe Mother of Revolution and Crime Is Poverty1504 Words   |  7 PagesThe mother of revolution and crime is poverty Poverty is being without things, having little money, not many material possessions and in need of essential goods. In short, being poor means that the people have nothing, and they have to struggle to even survive everyday. After physically and mentally tortured for a long period of time due to poverty, evil thoughts of getting out of the vicious cycle through illegal ways or new ideas that they think that will improve their lives will gradually startRead MoreThe Benefits Of Premarital Sex And Divorce968 Words   |  4 Pagesfinancial benefits, they also discuss the emotional benefits of knowing you have someone who loves you and who would take care of you. Children similarly benefit from having married parents as there are more financial resources available to help take care of them and they get to spend more time with at least one parent. Furthermore, it has been found that in addition to contributing to marital instability, premarital sex increases the likelihood that a couple will divorce. Joan Kahn and Kathryn LondonRead MoreMaos Last Dancer1250 Words   |  5 PagesChina during the Cultural Revolution was a place where you were told what to do, and what to say. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Greater Grand Forks Community Service And Restitution...

The Greater Grand Forks Community Service and Restitution Program is an essential resource to the criminal justice community in the Grand Forks area. The mission statement of the CSRP affirms that the program was designed in order to evaluate the risks and needs of the offender in order to safely place offenders within Grand Forks and the surrounding communities to work community service as not only a benefit to the public but to also provide offenders with an opportunity to exhibit reparation and compensation for the crimes they have committed and act as a deterrent to future criminal acts. The goal of this program is for the Grand Forks community to benefit while the offender works to pay off their debt to society. The objectives of the†¦show more content†¦The judgments received by this office provide details of what the client was charged with, how many hours of community service was sentenced in lieu of jail time and how long the client has to complete the set number of hours. If the offender was sentenced in District or Municipal court the offender is responsible for making contact with the CSRP office within 48 hours of sentencing. Upon, receiving a judgment and once the offender makes contact, the CSRP initiates an interview to obtain information about the offenders’ criminal history and other relevant information needed in order to assess the risks and needs of the offender. All of the information acquired at this interview is then inputted into a database and used for monitoring purposes and work-site placement. The CSRP maintains a list of appropriate community service work-site options that include the phone number, address, hours of operation and contact names for work-site supervisors. Each client receives several different work-site options and is provided with their required deadline dates upon placement. It is up to the client as to whether they wish to work at one or all of the options provided to them. The sites the CSRP works with tak e only certain offenders depending on the type of business, and the cliental that business acquires. Obtaining accurate and useful information is key for placing offenders in appropriate work-site

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Leadership and Steve Jobs Essay Example For Students

Leadership and Steve Jobs Essay 2010 Leadership Analysis Steve Jobs vs Anita Roddick Mentor: Daniel Burns RMIT International University Vietnam Bachelor of Commerce Program ASSIGNMENT COVER PAGE Your assessment will not be accepted unless all fields below are completed Subject Code:| BUSM 3286| Subject Name: | Leadership| Location where you study:| Hanoi Campus| Title of Assignment:| Leadership Analysis| File(s) Submitted | Steve Jobs and Anita Roddick_Leadership Analysis| Student name:| Nguyen Hong NhungNguyen Thuy HaTran Ngoc LinhVuong Thuy LinhLa Thi Huyen Nga| Student Email Address:| [emailprotected] edu. [emailprotected] du. [emailprotected] edu. [emailprotected] edu. [emailprotected] edu. vn  | Learning Facilitator in charge:| Daniel Burns| Assignment due date:| 4th January, 2010| Date of Submission: | 4th January, 2010| Number of pages including this one: | 26| Word Count:| 4,341 words (Excluding Executive Summary, Contents, and References)| Executive Summary Steve Jobs (CEO of Apple – the worldâ₠¬â„¢s leading information technology company) and Anita Roddick (founder of the Body Shop) are very famous around the world as two revolutionary innovators, one of IT industry and one in the cosmetic industry. The differences in industries that they work in and their gender lead to their interesting differences in leadership behavior and style, charismatic leadership and leadership powers. In term of leadership behavior and style, Anita Roddick performs obviously a relationship-oriented. In contrast, Steve Jobs has both relationship and task-oriented attitude. However, with Jobs, task-oriented attitude is stronger than relationship oriented. Both Steve Jobs and Anita Roddick have similar charismatic leadership’s characteristics as being great vision, unconventional strategy and ability to create the trust. However, they are opposite in term of Emotional expressiveness and personal warmth and masterful communication skills. In addition, Anita Roddick is considered as transformational leader only but Steve Jobs is both transactional and transformational leader. Referring to leadership powers, they have some similar powers that are legitimate power and personal power that are gain from position, knowledge and admiration. However, because of difference in leadership style, Jobs uses reward power to lead followers. In contrast, uses empowering practices to. Through the leadership analysis, three valuable learning outcomes are gained in order to improve leadership’s aspects. Firstly, most people admire participative leaders more than autocratic leaders. Secondly, each type of power has both advantages and disadvantages sides so it is not really important to use all of them. Thirdly, the crucial thing is that leaders should select type of power that is suitable with current situation. Contents 1. Introduction5 1. 1Reasons5 1. 2Theories5 1. 3Biography6 1. 3. 1Steve Jobs6 1. 3. 2Anita Roddick6 2. Findings7 2. 1Leadership behavior and styles7 2. 1. 1Steve Jobs7 2. . 2Anita Roddick9 2. 2Charismatic and Transformational Leadership10 2. 2. 1Steve Jobs10 2. 2. 2Anita Roddick11 2. 3Power, Politics and Influence Tactics of Leadership12 2. 3. 1Steve Jobs12 2. 3. 2Anita Roddick14 3. Discussion and Analysis14 3. 1Leadership behavior and styles14 3. 1. 1Similarities14 3. 1. 2Differences15 3. 1. 3Conclusion16 3. 2Charismatic and Transformational Leadership17 3. 2. 1Similarities17 3. 2. 2Differences18 3. 3Power, Politics and Influence Tactics of Leadership19 3. 3. 1Similarities19 3. 3. 2Differences20 3. 3. 3Conclusion21 4. Key Learning Outcome21 5. Reference24 1. Introduction . 1 Reasons This report analyses the leadership styles of Steve Jobs (CEO of Apple – the world’s leading information technology company) and Anita Roddick (founder of Body Shop). There are many reasons that we have chosen Steve Jobs to study. They are considered to be two revolutionary innovators, one in the IT industry and one in the cosmetic industry. They have both brought successes to their companies due to their effective leadership. As members of the third generation, we really admire him for his well known products such as Ipod, Iphone and Macbook that having a big influence on the youth. Therefore we would like to learn how he has achieved successes. Anita Roddick is not yet famous in Vietnam; however, after searching for information about her we have seen that she also has a great impact on not only Western countries but also some South East Asian countries. What differs from her of Steve Jobs is that she is a woman and she is able to bring forward a movement of protecting the environment, activate self esteem, be against animal testing and defend human rights which are really remarkable. This is something that really inspires us. Even though these two persons are working in totally different industries, their influence could be seen all over the world. 2. 2 Theories In order to understand more about the two leaders’ leadership styles, three theories are used. This includes firstly the leadership behaviours, attitudes and styles from Dubrin et al (2003). This theory is used because it is the foundation for a leader. This theory will give an overview of the different leaders. The second theory is charismatic and transformational leader. According to Dubrin et al (2003) it is a useful concept in understanding and practicing leadership. Then it is also really important to take into consideration that not all leaders are charismatic leaders. The last theory is the power, politics and leadership. This approach is to know the nature of leaders’ power and the different ways they acquire power and empower others. Then we could see how they use and control that power in the organization. 2. 3 Biography 2. 4. 1 Steve Jobs Steve Jobs was born in 1955 in California. He dropped out from College and with his friend Wozniak began in 1976 to sell computers that made in the garage. They called it Apple Computers which made him a billionaire. Then, he was fired in 1985 and started another business called Next but then Apple bought Next so he came back to Apple and became after some time CEO. At that moment he then came up with iMac, iPhone, etc. That makes him become the biggest shareholder in the company. As a result, he is becoming one of the most influential leaders in the world and one of its richest men. 2. 4. 2 Anita Roddick Roddick was born in 1942 in Littlehampton. In 1976, she opened the first ? Body Shop` as a shop selling green cosmetics products. Then she traveled a lot for her campaign of values of ? reducing environmental impact, saying no to animal testing, promoting well-being and affecting social changes. This is what made her products different from others. Even though, the Body Shop was sold to L’Oreal in 2006 (Bio,2007), she has made The Body Shop chain, one of the biggest cosmetic retailer chain in the world and inspired millions of people due to sustainable products. 2. Findings 3. 4 Leadership behavior and styles 3. 5. 3 Steve Jobs Task related leadership: Hands on guidance and feedback: ‘He always does personally checking the fine print on partnership agreements or calling reporters late in the evening to talk on important things or to tell them whether there is something wrong with that’ (Businessweek,2006) Adaptability to the situation: * After many years of not working for Apple and coming back, he still can make Apple one of the most successful technology organization. Then also, he can get through the 2008 financial crisis by increasing the research and development budget so he can beat its competitors. Ability to ask tough questions: Jobs makes the design process from start to finish. He always asks difficult questions and gives his personal opinions then finally, unfailingly push Apple to create better products (Jon, 2005). Risk taking and a bias for action: * Before setting up his business of ‘Apple I’ he has to sell their most prized possessions to get capital without knowing really what Apple I will become ’ (Jon,2005). Then he also saw the idea of Apple TV fail, though he has taken the risk to invent. High performance standards: * When he hires someone for any position, the only thing he asks for is competence. To measure his employees he also asks for a difficult task such as creating a new version of Ipod software. Relationship oriented leadership: Creating inspiration and visibility: * ‘He organizes regular meetings to ensure that effective communication and information are established among all members in the company’ (Ambler, 2008) Aligning and mobilizing people: * ‘ When a good idea comes, I spread with other members in the company, ask what people think and discuss with them to find best solutions’ ( Jobs, 2008) Concert building: I like getting different people together to explore different aspects of new things quietly’ (Jobs, 2008) 3. 5. 4 Anita Roddick Relationship-oriented leadership Aligning and mobilising people * Anita looks for employees who show their interest for what they are doing rather than their qualification for the job. She employs big people with big thinking and big ideas. Employ people that will fit in (AMR Research, 2007) Create i nspiration and visibility * In our interconnected environment every member can contribute to or detract from your associations presence in the marketplace. Make it easy for people to understand how their contribution to the work program makes a positive difference in the world and productivity will increase dramatically. * She travelled around different locations in all over the world where her The Body Shops appear (Jones, 1998) Satisfying higher-level needs * Anita Roddick said Nothing is more motivating than giving staff, employees, and associates the opportunity to express their own individual influences. (Anita Roddick: A legend of Cosmetics World, 2008) * Anita Roddick was the first person to provide the insurance for gay (same sex) people who are working for company (romow. om, 2008) Promoting principles and values * â€Å"If you are an activist, you bring the activism of your life into your business, or if you love creative art, you can bring that in. † Anita bring her own ideal to spread it across organisation (Ehicalcorp. com, 2000) Giving emotional support and encouragement: * You have to believe in what you are doing so strongly it becomes a reality, said Roddick who inspired others to get involved in creating a better world (AnitaRoddick,2004) 3. 5 Charismatic and Transformational Leadership 3. 6. 5 Steve Jobs Transformational leader: brings positive changes in an organization on managing through the economic downturn. He regarded the lay-off worker solution as the last thing for Apple Computer, but he planned to set aside amount of money in their profit for funding for research and development and marketing advertising budget (CNNmoney. com, 2008) Visionary: * He drew a perspective for people in 5 years ahead when they can watch their favourite channel on Apple TV, basketball match via video’s blog or TV shows via Disney’s ESPN Inc (CNNmoney. om, 2008) Masterful communication skill: * In presentation, the motto of Steve jobs is he not only sell product, but sell the dream for audience about the better world they are going to have as well. (Businessweek. com, 2008) Ability to inspire the trust: * Steve Jobs made his employee to pursuit their dream by the quote â€Å"most important, have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary. † (CNNmoney. com, 2008). Able to make members feel capable praise members or make members feel capable * Steve Jobs said to his employees in the organization conference Theres no other company that could make a MacBook Air and the reason is that not only do we control the hardware, but we control the operating system† (CNNmoney. com, 2008). Unconventional strategies * Steve Jobs decided not to hire consultant or do market research. Apple only has a 10-year consultant firm for analysing the competitor’s retail strategy to avoid making the same mistake (CNNmoney. com, 2008). Emotional expressiveness: express feeling openly When employee proposes him a not so good plan, the often quote he say to them is â€Å"that’s shit†. However, when they come back with the better one, he says â€Å"You worked hard. Well done† (CNNmoney. com, 2008) 3. 6. 6 Anita Roddick Transformational leader: When selecting supply chain or manufacturing issues Anita never considers profit, revenue or finan cial issues first, but environmental or ethic perspectives (Anitaroddick. com, 2004) Visionary: * Anita saw that a company or organization that displays a commitment in term of making this world better will gain a great deal; especially in times when world has many changes. Beyond Suffrage: A Book Review EssaySince Body Shop was founded, Roddick had envisioned a higher purpose for the company – social and environmental change, including education for staff (Conger ; Kanungo, 1998). Both leaders are visionary because they have great attractive visions which draw an impressive picture which the companies would attain. (Durbin, et al 2006) Unconventional Strategy In order to create the differentiation for Apple, Steve Jobs has worked out some unusual strategy to attain the goal. For example, Apple has no market research, instead only focuses on great products (see part Finding above). It means Steve Jobs treasured the risk but this unusual strategy can inspire innovation for greater products – one significant goal. Roddick designed unconventional strategy when she traveled around the world to find out natural beauty products that were friendly to environment and never test products on animals (Durbin, Dalglish ; Miller, 2006). At present, this is becoming more popular but at that time, Roddick was the first person to implement it and made Body Shop a sample of natural products. Ability to create trust Steve Jobs is also well known for his ability to create trust. For example, when Apple determines to invest on Macintosh computer, the product development group was out of sync; however, Steve Jobs is successful in directing them toward a groundbreaking end by creating total trust (Harkins, 2005). In this case, Jobs has created the trust to make followers willing to risk their career in pursuit of the goal. As discussed above, in Body Shop, employees are considered as an important element in her long term vision. To Roddick, there is a basic idea that companies have a responsibility to their people as well as the society. When employees really believe in this fundamental principle of the company; they will want to remain as a part of company Bruce ; Pepitone (1999); it means Roddick had created the trust to all Body Shop people. 4. 9. 13 Differences Emotional expressiveness and personal warmth – masterful communication skills Steve Jobs has ability to express his feelings openly when he evaluates quality of his employees’ projects. Expressing feelings openly is also demonstrated in his presentation skills when he shows his feelings about the new products very impressively which persuade customers effectively. It is also a part of Jobs’ masterful communication skill. He not only sells the greater product but also gives a dream of better world. Besides that, Steve Jobs knows how to promote risk taking; with all new great products such as Mac, i-phone, Jobs has made others admire such courage (Galo, 2009). While Roddick had not shown her ability to express feelings clearly; instead, everyone can see her personal warmth by visiting and talking to employees on factory floor which has made all people feel they are parts of the organization (Roddick, 2007). Transformational leadership – transactional leadership Are Steve Jobs and Anita Roddick transformational leaders? According to Yulk (2006), within transformational leadership, followers attain trust, admiration, loyalty, respect to the leaders; they are also motivated to achieve more than expected. Above all, transformational leaders are the leaders who make the positive changes in organizations. Therefore, it can be concluded that both Steve Jobs and Anita Roddick are transformational leaders. However, in general, the charismatic characteristics in Jobs have shown more impressively than Roddick. Jobs also has shown masterful communication skills, promote risk taking. However, Jobs also has transactional leadership. As discussed above, Jobs’ behaviours focus on task related relationship. He always clarifies expectation and expect high performance standard and provide rewards for that high performance (see the comparison of behavior). In contrast, Roddick only has relationship oriented relationship; therefore Roddick has no transactional leadership. 4. 9. 14 Conclusion In conclusion, Jobs and Roddick has some common and also different characteristics but both of them are effective leaders who have made great changes for their organizations. Though sharing some common characteristics, they express them in different ways; however, the important point is that those characteristics work very effectively. Specifically, both leaders do not have all characteristics of charismatic leadership but they have significant elements to make successes and the key point of these successes is transformational leadership. 4. 9 Power, Politics and Influence Tactics of Leadership 4. 10. 15 Similarities Both Steve Jobs and Anita Roddick have personal power type. According to Yukl 2006, personal power type includes referent and expert power that are gained from admiration, respect and knowledge respectively. However, the common interesting thing of these two leaders is that their knowledge did not come from academic training but from their own experience. This seems to increase their personal power as they got unique knowledge of how to do their jobs well (Hickson et al. , 1971). In addition, both leaders are transformational leaders (Scott. E 2003). Dubrin et al. , 1968 assert that transformational leaders have influence on others through being respected and admired. Thus, both Steve Jobs and Anita Roddick have referent power. 4. 10. 16 Differences Although, both Anita Roddick and Steve Jobs have similar source of power that is legitimate power that leaders have legal right to make a decision (Zand 1997). However, there are differences in the way they gain these powers. Anita Roddick is founder of Body Shop so it is transparent that she got the whole right to make decision in term of Bodyshop’s business. However, Steve Jobs is just one of Apple’s founders. Therefore, his right to make decision might have to be shared with other founders. According to Finklstein 1992, how strong power is related to amount of money that leader invests in the company. Steve Jobs has approximately 50% of Apple’s share (Mintz 2009). In addition, he is also CEO of Apple so he got highest right to make a decision. Steve Jobs and Anita Roddick use different other powers to lead their employees. Steve Jobs uses reward power to increase culture amongst Apple’s retail employees. According to Bubrin et al. , 1968, transactional leader often use rewards and punishment to control behaviours. In addition, Scott (2003) reckons that Steve Jobs is both transactional and ransformational leader. These might explain why Jobs uses rewards power to lead his employees. In contrast, Anita Roddick practices empowerment to lead her employees. Empowerment refers to realizing the talents and human potential that lies in the knowledge, experience and internal motivation of the people in the organization and releasing the power (Lussier and Achua 200 7). Anita Roddick’s leadership style is participative as her focus on relationship with follower. This might be one of reasons that why she practices empowerment in order to share power with qualified employees. In addition, through empowering practices, Anita Roddick also can build good relationship with her employees. 4. 10. 17 Conclusion Although Anita Roddick and Steve jobs work in different industries, they have some similar powers that are gained from position, knowledge and admiration. However, because of difference in leadership style, Roddick and Jobs use some different types of power. Jobs are also transactional leader so he use reward power to lead follower. In contrast, Roddick has relationship oriented so she uses empowering practices to share power in order to increase tasks’ effectiveness. . Key Learning Outcome 5. 10 Learning Outcome 1 Participative leader is usually admired by the majority. Through the findings, discussion and analysis under the topic of leadership behaviours and styles, it can be inferred that a leader with mainly autocratic style like Steve Jobs is usually admired by his performance. However, he is not close to his employees and it is difficult for him to influence people nicely. According to Draft 2007, autocratic leaders can have high performance since they used to set high standards for the performance. However, this is true with Steve Jobs. In contrast, a leader with democratic (participative) styles like Anita Roddick performs well and also receives the involvement of every group member voluntarily. 5. 11 Learning Outcome 2 Each type of power has both advantages and disadvantages sides. Each type of power has both advantages and disadvantages. For example, using empowering practices might help leaders have good relationship with employees and reduce stress and increase productivity and effectiveness as sharing power to generate new idea, solution from followers. However, it can create conflict amongst employees as. In term of reward power, leaders can encourage and force employees to put effort into their tasks. However, according to Arthur G. Sharp 2009, reward power might not work if employees do not believe they will be rewarded for their efforts or the value of rewards are not satisfied by employees as they think they can gain more value of rewards than that for their effort. Therefore, effective and power leaders do not mean that they have and use all type of power to lead follower. Effective and power leaders are people who can understand current situation to define suitable power. In addition, high level of power does not totally depend on which gender leader is, how many and high degree leader achieve. The crucial factor is what you really gain from real experience, how well leaders applied his knowledge and perform their work. To illustrate, Steve Jobs did not gain any IT degree from university but he can make computers by himself. Now he has strong power in Apple. Steve Jobs also has strong influence on many people over the world not only in his company. 5. 12 Learning Outcome 2 Either transactional or transformational leadership can make effective leaders. As discussed above, Jobs has some characteristics of transactional leadership. He understands his employees very well, knows how to motivate the whole group and gives them deserved rewards for high performance standard. However, what makes Steve Jobs and Anita Roddick great leaders is transformational leadership. If Jobs only applied transactional leadership, he probably wouldn’t create Apple’s fame which wins the admiration in the last decade. Since transformational leaders motivate their followers to take ownership of company’s vision, pursue the higher needs, perform more than expectation (Daft, 2005). That can be the reason why Jobs and his team can create the great products such as Mac or iTunes. Moreover, (Durbin, et al 2005) stated that transformational leaders also inspire people to make the difference and develop long term relationship through personal consideration that is the key of Roddick’ success. Roddick has no transactional leadership quality but everyone has to confirm that she is an effective and successful leader when she can inspire her people about the company of natural beauty regarding moral which make the particular difference of Body Shop. . Reference * ‘All about Steve’ 2009, Fortune, Vol. 160, Iss. 10, pp 123-126, viewed 31st December 2009, ;http://search. ebscohost. com. ezproxy. lib. rmit. edu. au/login. aspx? direct=true;db=buh;AN=45693827;site=ehost-live;scope=site; * â€Å"Anita Roddick – The power of one†, 2004, viewed at 24th December 2009, ;http://www. ethicalcorp. com/content. asp? ContentID=5401; * â€Å"Anita Rod dick: A legend of Cosmetics World†, 2008, viewed at 27th December 2009, ;http://www. romow. om/entertainment-blog/anita-roddick-a-legend-in-the-cosmetics-world/; * â€Å"Daily Celebration: Anita Roddick â€Å", 1997, viewed 25th December, 2009, ;http://www. dailycelebrations. com/090401. htm; * â€Å"Steve Jobs speaks out†, 2008, viewed at 28th December, 2009, ;http://money. cnn. com/galleries/2008/fortune/0803/gallery. jobsqna. fortune/3. html; * â€Å"Steve Jobs, The Entrepreneur†, May 13th 2005, viewed on 28th December 2009, ;http://www. mac-forums. com/forums/anything-goes/27114-steve-jobs-entreprenuer. html; * â€Å"The power of publishing†, viewed at 2nd December, 2009, ;http://www. nitaroddick. com/readmore. php? sid=297; * â€Å"Uncovering Steve Jobs Presentation Secrets†, 2008, viewed at 28th December, 2009, http://www. businessweek. com/smallbiz/content/oct2009/sb2009106_706829_page_2. htm * Allen. S, 2006, â€Å"Anita Roddick Redefini ng Business As We Know  It†, viewed at 25th December, 2009, http://entrepreneurs. about. com/od/famousentrepreneurs/p/anitaroddick. htm * Amber. G, 2008, â€Å"Steve Jobs and his leadership†, viewed on 28th December, 2009, http://www. thepracticeofleadership. net/2008/03/30/steve-jobs-and-his-